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Proces „Democratic backsliding“ (Demokratického úpadku) v Ruské federaci v období 2012-2021



Martin Solik – Jan Graf – Dalibor Velký


Politické vedy, Volume 27, Number 1/2024, pages 8-42


Recommended form for quotation of the article / Odporúčaná forma citácie článku:

SOLIK, M. – GRAF, J. – VELKÝ, D. 2024. Proces „Democratic backsliding“ (Demokratického úpadku) v Ruské federaci v období 2012-2021. In Politické Vedy. Vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 8-42. ISSN 1335 – 2741. Available at:



The phenomenon of "democratic backsliding" is becoming a topical issue in today's international relations, with recent occurrences in various regions, including Europe. This paper examines the weakening of democracy in the Russian Federation from 2012 to 2021. The study aims to determine whether democratic elements were dismantled in Russia during this period. For this purpose, the theoretical framework by Ellen Lust and David Waldner was utilized, alongside Merkel's concept of embedded democracy. Appropriate indicators were selected to reliably reveal the deterioration in the quality of democratic institutions and processes in Russia, specifically the Freedom House index, Democracy Index, and the Bertelsmann Transformation Index (BTI). By employing these three indices, the study assesses whether Russia can be classified as an anchored democracy or a defective democracy. The findings, presented in the final section of the paper, indicate significant erosion of democratic practices and institutions in Russia during the observed period. This deterioration underscores a shift from an already flawed democratic structure to one that increasingly resembles an authoritarian regime. The study concludes that Russia cannot be considered an anchored democracy; rather, it exhibits numerous characteristics of a defective democracy, marked by weakened institutions and diminished political freedoms.

Key words: The Russia Federation, Democratic Backsliding, Democracy, Religion, Political Culture, Illiberal Values

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Proces „Democratic backsliding“ (Demokratického úpadku) v Ruské federaci v období 2012-2021 Veľkosť: 500.6 kB Formát: pdf Dátum: 21.6.2024